Prob agencies want single anti-terror mechanism
- Investigating agencies have recommended for setting up a central anti-terror agency placing investigating and intelligence wings under a single command.
- The Union Home ministry have received a proposal that such a unified body to be created by an executive order. The Central Bureau of Investigation was also set up in the same manner under Delhi Special Police Establishment Act in 1941 as Special Police Establishment and it was renamed as Central Bureau of Investigation in 1963.
- For insulating the intelligence wings from any vulnerability under the proposed single command, some security experts said that all the divisions could function independently." In fact, we need such a mechanism, as investigations into Left-wing extremism cases are altogether different from those involving cases like Indian Mujahideen.
- Many Intelligence Bureau officers have concerns about safety and security of field officers and the secrecy of covert operation.
- National Investigation Agency, which has statutory power under the NIA Act, which was passed by the Parliament of India on 31 December,2008 (NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai attack as need for a central agency to combat terrorism act was realized), to probe terrorism cases either with the consent of State governments or on the direction of Union Home Ministry. Even the NIA can be brought in as the investigating and prosecuting wing.
- It was after 26/11 terror attack that the then Union Home Minister, P. Chidambram,suggested setting up the National Counter Terrorism Centre(NCTC), on the lines of the one in the United States and the British Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre, for coordinated counter-terror operations.However, concerned that such an agency could well be abused by the Centre for political ends, many Chief Ministers struck down the idea primarily because the unit was to function under the Intelligence Bureau and, unlike the U.S. agency, it would be empowered to conduct searches and arrests under Sections 43 and 43A of the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act.
- In 2012, the Centre came up with an office memorandum defining the functions, powers and duties of the NCTC as a single and effective point of control and coordination of all counter-terrorism measures, which would work through the existing agencies in the country.
32 websites go blank
- Instructions issued by the Department of Telecommunications to the Internet Service provide on data archiving,video sharing and software development have evoked criticism on social media.
- The DoT invoked Section 69A (power of blocking public access to Internet contents) of the Information Technology Act and the Information Technology (Procedures and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules to issue the directive on December 16.
- The Information Technology Act 2000 is an Act of the Indian Parliament Notified on October 17, 2000. Information technology Act 2000 consisted of 94 sections segregated into 13 chapters.
- Information Technology Act 2000 addressed the following issues:
- Legal recognition of electronic documents
- Legal Recognition of digital signatures
- Offenses and contraventions
- Justice dispensation systems for cybercrimes
- Offence under I.T act 2000
- section 65-Tampering with computer source documents - Intentional concealment, destruction or alteration of source code when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in force.(Punishment under section 65-Imprisonment up to three years, or/and with fine up to 2 lakh rupees).
- section 66-Hacking. (Punishment under section 66-Imprisonment up to three years, or/and with fine up to 5 lakh rupees).
- section 66 A-Sending offensive message through electronic means - Sending any information through an electronic message that is grossly offensive or has menacing character and might cause insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, etc. or sending such mail intended to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages.(Punishment under section 66 A- Imprisonment up to three years, and with fine).
- “All Internet Service Licences are accordingly directed to immediately block access to above URLs,” said the order, listing the web addresses including that of portals like archive.org and vimeo.com that were later unblocked.
ISRO Chief Radhakrishnan retires, Shailesh
Nayak in charge
ISRO chairman K.Radhakrishnan retired on 31st December,2014. Shailesh Nayak, who is secretary,Union Earth Sciences Ministry, will hold additional and interim charge as Chairman for a month or until a regular chief is named.
Achievement of K.Radhakrishnan
- He took over the charge in 2009.
- The Mars Orbiter Mission was launched and guided around an orbit of the Mars under his leadership.
- The partial experimental sub-orbital flight of the GSLV Mark-III heavy lift launch vehicle was another success.
- Mars Orbiter Mission or Mangalyaan is a spacecraft orbiting Mars since 24 september,2014. It was launched on 5 september,2013 by the ISRO. It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space agency after USSR's Soviet space program, U.S's NASA, Europe's European Space Agency. India is the first nation to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt and the first Asian country to do so.
- The GSLV Mark-III is a launch vehicle developed by the ISRO. It is intended to put satellite in geosynchronous orbit(circular orbit 35,786 km above the Earth's equator and following the Earth rotation. An object in this orbit has orbital period equal to Earth's rotational period) and as a launcher for Indian crew vehicle. The GSLV Mark-III features an cryogenic(cryogenic fuels are fuel that require storage at extremely low temperature in order to maintain them in liquid state) third stage and higher payload capacity than current GSLV. It chas capacity of 4000 kg payload in Geosynchronous transfer orbit and 8000 kg in Low Earth orbit(600 km). On 18 December, 2014 ISRO successfully launched sub-orbital development test flight of GSLV Mark-III with payload of 3,775 kg.
- A sub-orbital spaceflight refers to a flight in which the spacecraft reaches space and then return back into Earth's atmosphere. Its trajectory intersects the gravitating body from where it is launched.